Claridad Bilingüe Negatives Collection
Scope and Contents
This collection chronicles Puerto Rican community events and political activities not only in New York but nationally and internationally through the medium of photography. The heart and essence of this collection is nearly eleven thousand film negatives and nineteen black & white photographs, which span from 1967 to 1982. The bulk of these negatives documented various political activities and social demonstrations for Claridad Bilingüe but few were published. After so many years, this collection opens wide the opportunity for viewing these photographers images through their camera lenses.
Additionally, the collection includes the resignation letter from a former New York member of Partido Socialista Puertorriqueño (PSP), or Puerto Rican Socialist Party. The collection also contains documents, ephemera, and the negatives for pictures that were to be included in a proposed book about Partido Socialista Puertorriqueño, (PSP).
- Claridad Bilingüe de Puerto Rico (Organization)
Conditions Governing Access
Open to researchers without restrictions.
Conditions Governing Use
Open to researchers for personal research or educational purposes only. Copyright held by Edwin "Chungo" Molina and Claridad.
Biographical / Historical
Claridad is a weekly newspaper of the Puerto Rican workers independence movement founded by socialist leaders Juan Mari Brás and Cesar Andreu Iglesias in San Juan on June 1, 1959. The paper was the official publication for the Independence Political Movement (Movimiento Pro Independencia, MPI) and later the Puerto Rican Socialist Party (Partido Socialista Puertorriqueño, PSP) in Puerto Rico. Puerto Ricans were called by the party to support the independence of Puerto Rico for the working social class regardless of where they lived. They wanted to instill pride and celebrate Puerto Rican culture and history. As members and sympathizers among the Puerto Rican communities stateside decided to support and keep strong ties to the party in Puerto Rico, the Claridad USA (known as Claridad Bilingüe, the bilingual) edition became a source of information and a tool to disseminate news from the diaspora perspective in both English and Spanish languages.
In 1972, the publishers of Claridad decided to publish a biweekly edition and announced a Claridad USA bilingual edition would appear in the United States. On March 19, 1972, Claridad Bilingüe published its first bilingual supplement of Claridad in order to reach an English speaking audience that mainly resided in the New York area. On April 2, 1972, the staff decided to increase the size of the bilingual paper. In December 1973, Claridad staffer, Ramón Arbona announced that the bilingual version of the paper would consist of sixteen pages. José E. Velázquez assisted in starting up and managing the bilingual newspaper. Another important contributor to Claridad Bilingüe was Zoraida Santiago, a song composer who contributed articles to the bilingual newspaper. On January 27, 1974, José Manuel Navarro became deputy director of Claridad Bilingüe. Throughout its publication, Claridad Bilingüe's official name varied. For example, from 1972 to 1977, the newspaper was known as "Bilingual Supplement; Suplemento Bilingüe". From April to July 1977, it was called Claridad Edición EEUU.
Claridad Bilingüe focused on alerting its readers to problems within the various Puerto Rican communities living in the United States, specifically the New York area. Claridad Bilingüe brought attention to various political and social events, demonstrations, protests, and other activities that dealt with workers' rights, Puerto Rican independence, and other leftist concerns. For the first time a cadre of first and second generation Puerto Ricans living in the Northeast region got the opportunity to cover the news and issues that were impacting the Puerto Rican communities. These photographers covered events in New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Illinois among other places.
Claridad USA edition microfilms dated 1972-1983: 5 reels
Claridad online (https://www.claridadpuertorico.com/)
Claridad. (n.d.) In Library of Congress. Retrieved August 7, 2019, from https://www.loc.gov/item/sn86090796/
Claridad. (n.d.) In Wikipedia. Retrieved July 9, 2019, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claridad
Guide to the José E, Velázquez Papers, Archives of the Puerto Rican Diaspora. Center for Puerto Rican Studies, Hunter College, CUNY.
Palau Suárez, Awilda. Veinticinco años de Claridad, 1992. Puerto Rico: Editorial de la Univesidad de Puerto Rico.
1.5 Cubic Feet
Language of Materials
Claridad is a weekly newspaper of the Puerto Rican workers independence movement founded in San Juan on June 1, 1959. The paper was the official publication for the independence political movement (Pro Independencia, MPI) and later the Puerto Rican Socialist Party (Partido Socialista Puertorriqueno, PSP) in Puerto Rico. The Claridad USA (known as Claridad Bilingüe, the bilingual) edition became a source of information and a tool to disseminate news from the diaspora perspective in both English and Spanish languages. The essence of this collection is nearly eleven thousand 35mm film negatives and nineteen black & white photographs, which span from 1967 to 1982. The images document events in New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Illinois among other places. The bulk of these negatives document various political activities and social demonstrations but few were chosen to be published.
The collection is divided into the following series:
I. Film Negatives (35MM and Oversized)
II. Black & White Photographs/Prints (Various Sizes)
IV. Textiles and Ephemera
Immediate Source of Acquisition
Gift of Edwin "Chungo" Molina, 2005
Processed by Daniel Paliwoda, as part of Queens College Graduate School of Library and Information Science Advanced Archival Practicum at Centro, 2019. Project Supervisors Pedro Juan Hernández and Cristina Fontánez Rodríguez.
- Community newspapers Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- Hostos Community College
- Nationalism -- Puerto Rico Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- Negatives (photographs) Subject Source: Art & Architecture Thesaurus
- Partido Independentista Puertorriqueño
- Photographers Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- Photographs Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- Puerto Rican newspapers Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- Puerto Ricans -- New York (State) -- New York -- Political participation Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- Puerto Ricans -- Political Activity Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- Puerto Rico -- History -- Autonomy and independence movements Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- Molina, Edwin "Chungo" (Person)
- Claridad Bilingüe Negatives Collection
- Daniel Paliwoda
- Description rules
- Describing Archives: A Content Standard
- Language of description
- Script of description
- 2022: Revised by Susan M. Kline,
- English / Spanish bilingual finding aid available.
Part of the Archives of the Puerto Rican Diaspora Repository
Silberman Building, Hunter College
2180 Third Ave. Rm. 122
New York New York 10065